PRINCIPLES AND USES OF SOME LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS
ELECTROPHORETIC MACHINE: – This is an instrument used in the separation of macro molecules. This instrument is important in the laboratory as it is used in the test for genotype.
WORKING PRINCIPLE: –This machine obeys electrophoresis which is the movement of charged particles through a stationery liquid under of an electric field. The particles are separated on the basis of charge, size and type.
CENTRIFUGE: –  Laboratory centrifuge is a machine capable of generating centrifugal forces by the rotation of a rotor. The rotors hold tube containing substances that is being subjected to centrifugation.                                                        
WORKING PRINCIPLE: – This machine obeys the centrifugal force, this is a force exerted on a rotating particle and directed away from the centre of rotation, the force increases with distance from the centre of rotation. It is used in the separation of blood cells from the plasma.
MICROSCOPE: –   This is an instrument for magnifying and visualizing objects too small to be seen with the naked eyes.                                                       
WORKING PRINCIPLE: – Binocular microscope has two set of lenses, the objecting lens and the eye piece. The basic principle is to visualize the enlarged image of the object by the help of these lenses. When the beam of light passes through the object, and then the convex lens of the object, it forms a real, inverted and enlarged image of the object in the plane of the eye piece by adjustment. This image now acts as object for the eye piece. Eye piece lens then forms a further enlarged virtual image of the object.
REFRIGERATOR:-    A refrigerator is an appliance that consist of a thermally  insulated compartment and a heat pump [mechanical, electronic or chemical] that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment, so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. It is used to store laboratory reagents and specimen.
GLUCOMETER: –       A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood.                                                    
WORKING PRINCIPLE: – Glucometers contains an enzymes, either glucose hexokinase, or oxidase that reacts with the blood sugar. This enzyme generates an electric current. The glucometer measures the electric current and translate it into a numerical value. Some glucometer express this value as milligrams per deciliter [mg/dl] while others use milimoles per litre [mmol/l]. It is used to determine the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood.
SYRINGES: –  A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside cylindrical tube called a barrel,allow the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube. The open end of the syringe maybe fitted with an hypodermic needle, a nuzzle or tube to help direct the flow into and out of the barrel. It is used to administer injections, insert intravenous drugs into the blood stream and to collect blood specimen from patients. 
TEST-TUBES: –          These are used by chemists to hold, mix or heat small quantities of solid or liquid chemicals especially for qualitative experiments and assays. Their round bottom and straight sides minimize mass loss when pouring, makes them easier to clean and allow convenient monitoring of the contents. The long narrow nick slows down the spreading of vapours and gases to the environment.
PIPETTE: –     This is a laboratory tool common use to transport a measure volume of liquid often as a media dispenser. Pipette come in several designs for various proposes with differing level of accuracy and precision, from single piece glass pipette to more complex and adjustable or electronaic pipette.
TOURNIQUETS: –      This is a wire like a pipe usual tired on the hand of patients to arrest the veins when collecting a blood sample intravenously.
  
SAHLI HEMAMETER: –        This is a laboratory instrument which consists of two oranges tube which is used to determine the hemoglobin level of patients.

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