PROSPECT & CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION, TRANSPORTATION & INDUSTRIALIZATION POLICIES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
No nation can survive without strong urban, industrial and transportation policies. Millions of people are being accommodated through urban, hundred of nation are improving their industrial and technological capabilities for stronger economy base, tons of million of Nigerian are in the move by automobile, airplanes, intercity bus, passenger train, a variety of commuter and transit services and even ferry boats and lines of which scale of these travel could be amounted to ten billion passenger miles for every passengers moving through this vast and complex system, tons of freight is also moving through trucks, trains, aero planes, cargo ships, and pipelines covering millions tons miles of national and international market.
The three variables are intertwine or related, in the sense that either of these, absence of Transportation, Urbanization, and Industrialization Economy couldbe affect the economy badly. Every Nigerian farmer, Industrialists and retailer depend on domestic and international supply chain which the major input are Transportation. Sound industrial base of cause, well organized environment “urban” is necessary input for any economic growth. During the cause of this discussion we shall touch various areas in transportation; urbanization and industrialization as it affect our society while featuring some technical issues in these various areas.
Still it is difficult separating transportation from urbanization and industrialization. Development of urban centers is not quite different as in other part of the World; urbanization is a function primarily of trade, with transportation facilitating movement of cargoes, politicians and non politicians.
The concentration of wealth, prestige, political influence and religious learning attract people, this could be affirmed in many instance. The concentration of European trader brought about cities like Lagos, Badagri, Brass and Bonny and later Calabar and Port Harcourt while within the Northern region, there come about such cities, which serve as entropots to the Saharan and Saharan trade activities; namely Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Sokoto, the early Bornu capital (Gazargamo and Kuka) with other cities springing as a result of trade by the European trader and also with the introduction of train activities. It is confirmed that European traders and colonial administrators establish cities such as Lokoja, Onitsha, etc; Abuja is not exempted, as its development hinge largely on political concentration.
The modern day transport system began along side industrial revolution of England in the early part of 18th century. Frequent flood in coal mine, brought about new comer’s steam engine invention (1705) to pump out water out of the mine, technology further improve by James Watt in the early part of , through 1980’s. With high demand of Coal, invention of iron rail powered by steam engine came into existent to haul Coal to nearby port. The combination of iron rails and steam engine to transport people and goods became the dominant mode of transportation then. This becomes the greatest achievement in transport since ancient time. Till date this technology, steam engine received improvement and it become modified to power trucks, aeroplane, buses, Cars, Vessels that provide transportation service today.
Industrialization represent paradigm shift in technology, socio-economic and cultural condition of the late 18th century and early 19th century, it began in Britain, then, spread through out the World, which sees, manual labour replaced with machineries. The scientific revolution of England brought about invention that sees Hogreaves invented a Spinning jonny capable of spinning numerous spools of cotton simultaneously, though was hand powering, it can multiply several fold. The rapid development of Nigeria can be attributed, largely to oil.
The term industrialization has over the years remain indispensable factor in many economies, it is an important aspect of the economy that adequate attention must be given if the envisage economic growth and development are to be achieved in practiced and not in theoretical terms. On the other hand it is on this background that many nations of the world’s strife towards industrialization of its economy in other to yield the benefit of its economic potential optimally and full level of employment. It is on this premise that Federal government of Nigeria usually budgeted reasonable percent of it annual expenditure on industrialization of its economy on the believed or realization that investment in industries has s multiplier effect on the economy and the lives of its citizen.
Industrialization is a process of social and economic changes whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial state. It is a part of wider modernization process According to (Abbey Chup Baith his writing asserts that social and economic changes is closely intertwined with technological innovation, particularly the development of large scale energy production and metallurgy. Industrialization is also related to some form of philosophical change, or toward different attitudes in the perception of nation, whether these philosophical changes are caused by industrialization or vice-versa is subject to debate.
1.1. THE NEED FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION
Industrialization is a win-win process for social transformation and economic development. A developing country like ours just cannot afford to view industrialization as a negative phenomenon. It is only through rapid industrialization that we can find meaningful solution to problem of mass unemployment, underdevelopment, underutilization osf resources (human and material) and host of others
Most pre-industrial economies had standard of living not much above sub-subsistence, meaning that the majority of the population were focused on producing their means of survival. For instance, in medieval Europe, 80% of the labour force was employed in subsistence agriculture as in the case of Nigeria today.
Production of a recent paper concerned with assessing the contributions of industry to sustainable development in Nigeria since Rio in 1992 made it clear that sine the 1980s when the concept of sustainable development and environment was introduced, the concept has helped to forge a compromise between the demands for economic growth on the one hand, and for environmental protection and conservation on the other. On the other hand, since the 1990s industrialization has been undergoing a crisis in Nigeria, with several factories closing down, those operating doing so at low capacity utilization, and the overall targets set in the Vision 2010 Report for an annual GDP growth of 7% between 1997 and 2000 and accelerating to 9% from 2000, not being realized, the rapid industrial growth, which was also forecast to increase the share of manufacturing from 6.9% in 1996, was not realized.
1.2. THE THEORIES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
Lets begin with a careful definition of exactly what we meant by economic growth: this represents the expansion of a country’s potential GDP or national output. Put differently, economic growth occur when a nations production possibility frontier or cure shift outward
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This century is an increasingly competitive environment that sees the likes of China and India set to take over existing economic power.
The 21st century has created an increasing competition World, thereby endangering our children, grandchildren and our national economy base even though “our generation inherited battered economic system created by our previous leaders misdeed”, “to our generation, we have to provide a partway, that will guarantee our children , and our grand children the best economic system made possible through the commitment of our generation and leadership to invest in the country future which call for action while considering and implementing the following points.
- The government need to create facility that allows Nigerian carries access fund at zero (0) or two (2) percent interest rate on medium and long term basis to support and upgrade their operational capabilities.
- To ensure sustainability and safety in the nation airspace, government must carrying out staff capability Audit among its regulatory agencies to identify such areas that requires seasoned and qualified individual which should not be restricted to Nigerians and must be devoid of political consideration.
- Replace Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and equip them to carry out analysis of the current status of the target safety problems and vehicle technologies assessment, Road/Pavement Quality Assessment; harmonization of various vehicle accessories through international adoption of standard Developing safety Rules and enforcing same throughout the Federation.
- Government should appoint Minister of state for Lands Transportation, to handle matters related to land transport; the Honourable ministers of state for Land transport will supervise all ministries responsible for development, and improvement of infrastructure i.e. the Nation land infrastructural network, together with other modes of transport infrastructural development, supervise the proposed Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and to develop conducive environment that allowed sustainable and effective land Transport system in the country also ensuring efficient inter connectivity otherwise referred to as intermodalism, of land to other modes of transportation. The minister must be Economists, specializing in Transportation Economist or Civil engineer, with specialty in Transportation and infrastructural development.
- Ensure domestication of various international conventions as bothering on Maritime and Aviation activity in the countries, Assessing various Bilateral Agreements, terminating such one needed, while those one not implementing must be implemented, also the Federal government must ensure that National Planning Commission up dates their own Web Site to capture necessary economic data and document for other ministry and public consumption.
- Facilitates the passage of Public and Private Partnership bill unto law to strengthen Public and Private Partnership role and allow for the efficient supply of transportation infrastructure and service among the geographical areas.
- The Federal government must considered as the matter of urgency, chartered of the institute of Chartered Economist of Nigeria, and Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, to support their effort in developing a virile and sustainable economic structure.
- Government need to establish necessary institutional framework to underpin and facilities the operations of a market-based system/economy to check down turn of its effort.
- In achieving the objectives of sustainable development, Government need to integrate economic, social and environmental concerns policy making and to promote economic growth and international competitive of industry through a balance macroeconomic policies in order to stimulate and dominate private enterprise, boost economy-wide competitiveness and attract Foreign Direct Investment. Policy reforms should aim at creating an enabling policy environment, through improvements in infrastructure and education, encouragement of research and development, facilitation of export, liberalization of domestic market, along with the diversification of Nigeria economy through infrastructure improvement, development of agric products process plants, improvement of electricity supply, transportation system improvement and introduction of incentive/subsidies to Nigerian manufacturing sector with special attention given to small and medium sized enterprises.
- The overriding task facing government is to ensure the passage into law of those bills currently in the national Assembly which has capability of sustaining the present economic reforms, and exert positive influence on industrial activities, improvement of regulatory environment, also in developing sufficient manpower,
- It must be made compulsory that all government and its agencies together with parastatals hosts develop their web site to display their operational performance and provide appropriate data to various planners and potential investors,
- Government need to involved Transportants and Logisticians, Economists, Lawyers, Environmentalist, Engineers and Surveyors in city planning and development to curb environment pollution, system collapse, crime and poverty.
- Government administration and its policies towards the housing sector should be viewed as instrument, for the implementation and fulfillment of National housing goals. The role government plays in influencing the price mechanism of the housing should be effectively and positively exercised, it is essential that the large investment in housing construction is made with regard to long term social and economic considerations to maintain the value of those investments, with land price made more accessible to the public.
- The government should develop a framework that will allow the nation institutions of higher learning to be more relevance towards the development of national industrial base, especially in the area of researches. dbfmyw
- Adequate attention be given toward the development of coastal area to curb restiveness and allows maximum utilization of Marine resources, including trade and tourism.
Anyawu Structure of the Nigerian Economy “Transport General Issues” pp 331-343
Davis, Kingsley “Urbanization” in the urban Economy, ed. Harold Hochman. New York; W.W. Norton, 1976, A brief history of urbanization.
Fedra, Kurt Sustainable Urban Transportation; A model based approach; Director, ESS GMGH, A2352 Gumpoldskirchen, Austria (2004) pp2-20
Gottschalk, Peter “Inequality, Income Growth, and Mobility: The Basic Facts” Journal of Economic Prospectives 11 (1997)” pp 21-40
Guardian Newpaper “Wanted, a way out of the rot in Nigeria Railway” Transport summit “Toward an efficient Rail Transport system in Nigeria February 25, 2004 pp 13
Hohenberg, Paul M, and Lynn H. Lees. The making of Urban Europe 1000-1985. Cambridge, MRSS: Harvard University Press 1985. Discusses the reasons for the Urbanization in Europe