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field trip Survey Camp is a holiday Program in Nigeria universities aimed at exposing 300 level student in Civil and Environmental Engineering to practical/field work experience in Surveying.

survey Camp is scheduled for three weeks in an Academic Section started 7am to 6pm daily. Day 1 and 2 was set aside for planning. Activities which also include Camp briefing, Division of ten Groups of approximately six members, field demonstration on the use of various survey instrument such as Level, leveling staff etc. a Mock Leveling was carried out to improve the learning capacity of each Group. All Groups were sent to their various site from day 3 of the Survey Camp set aside for field work. Temporary Benchmark was established for profile leveling of 1600m while taking Cross Section at every 200m and closing back the leveling following same Route to starting point. This exercise lasted for three days, the remaining days of schedule was used for computation, processing of field Data and drawing of survey plans   and profiles manually on individual basis. At the end of the exercise each student were able to indicate areas that is necessary for cut and fill. Finally each student will be submitting a Technical Report to serve as an official account of fact and activities associated with the survey Camp.


I got experience working in the field. It was good revision of theoretical knowledge of surveying and a practical practice. I would heartily like to acknowledge Department of Environmental Engineering for including such program in the syllabus .I must recognize the effort of all staffs who directly or indirectly  helped us during the camp most especially surv. K.A. Raheem whom worked tirelessly to see that he gives his best in the program. It would be unfair to forget the immense support from Mr. Onu who contributed to the progress of the Survey Camp.


sincere appreciation goes to the University of Port Harcourt for granting me Admission through the department of Envoronmental Engineering.

I owe a lot to my family, the family of Mr. and Mrs.EZE whose moral and financial aids have geared my performance in the Survey Camp.

I appreciate all members of my team Group six(6) for the team spirit they invested. Without them the Survey Camp would not have been complete.

My regards to University of Port Harcourt the Project site allocated to my Group for accepting us and making the environment safe for us.

Above all, I thank the Almighty God who kept me alive to experience this event.

1.0                                                          INTRODUCTION

 There was a recommendation made by the Nigeria university commission N.U.C  that all Civil and Environmental Engineering  students undertakes a 7 unit course in survey, however this 7 unit course is being splinted into fragments by different schools. In thes University of Port Harcourt one of the fragments that make up the 7 units course is survey camp which is carried out every year by 300 level Civil and Environmental Engineering students as a practical aspect of the survey course whereas the other fragment forms the theoretical aspect of the survey course recommended.

It can be said that survey camp is very relevant to civil and Environmental engineering students because every construction work that is to be designed  by civil/ Environmental engineers require a survey plan so as to enable the engineers know the extent of area which he is to carry out its design and how the terrain looks like. Survey camp in this regard gives all civil/Environmental engineering students a basic understanding of the various information’s that will be presented by the surveyor to the civil/Environmental engineer so he can interpret the data base on the knowledge acquired from this exercise and hence carry out his design. The various activities that makes up the survey camp program from the beginning is as shown below

  1. Camp briefing and planning for field work , allocation of survey instrument to each group ,site visit for reconnaissance survey by each group
  2. Field demonstration on the use of various survey instruments , preliminary exercise on the campus on the use of leveling instruments, inventory on the survey equipment by each group
  3. Field work at various project sites by each group , daily inventory of the survey equipments by each group
  4. Pre-processing of field data by each group, computation and processing of field data on individual basis , drawing of survey plans and profiles
  5. Technical report writing and submission


2.0                                                            PLANNING


The planning for this exercise was divided into two sections which are

2.1  Office Planning:

There was a short camp briefing and planning for the field work at the office after which allocation of survey instrument and project sites to each group was carried out by ballot process

Immediately all after groups were allocated project sites all groups went to do recce exercise for the propose of ascertaining site conditions whether the site is suitable

the recce exercise entailed walking round the propose route and carrying out sketch drawings noting necessary features along both left and right side of the route, during the recce exercise it was observed that some parts of the route are heavily built while others are under construction. Mock exercise followed immediately after the recce exercise and a distance of 200m land inside choba campus was assigned to each group for the [leveling] exercise to be carried out before each group would leave for their various sites

 2.2  Field Planning:

A  group of  six students including myself went to the field for planning , we started by appointing a group leader whom will be in charge of duties relating to the instruments submission and complains or appeal to our cause lecturer. Certain important points were marked on the field e.g our temporary bench mark (T.B.M) and our end of rout after estimating 1600m from our T.B.M  for each route so as to know the extent of which we were working with. The equipment used for the field exercise are






      3.0                                                             FIELD WORK


The task assigned for this year survey camp is to carry out route leveling from Abuja main gate towards senate building . This task was achieved in threes ways

  • Profile Leveling :

This is the process of taking levels of points along the center line for a proposed construction. The essence of this is to show the ground variation in terms of height differences. the processes adopted to achieve this at our project sites are as follows.

  • A temporary bench mark was established
  • A distance of 20m was then measured and the leveling staff was place at the 20m mark
  • The level instrument was setup on the tripod and the bobble was centered to achieve accurate reading
  • The first reading taken from the telescope in the level instrument was gotten from the staff placed at T.B.M and recorded as back site after which other readings were taken at every 20m interval from each other and recorded as intermediate sight till the point where the view of the staff from the telescope becomes blur and the last reading taken before the instrument setup was changed to another position is recorded under fore sight
  • The same procedure is repeated for other instruments setup till we got to 1600m after which profile leveling was still carried out back to T.B.M from 1600m for accuracy checking.


Fig. 1.0  Differential leveling


3.2 Cross Sectioning:

These are levels taken at short distance across the route, in the field it was taken at every 200m interval, the process adopted to achieve this at our project sites are as follows

At every 200m interval mark 5m is measured to the left of that point and the height reading at that point is recorded the same procedure goes with 10m to the left of that point and 5m to 10m right from 200m mark , the essence of which is to know how the road slopes laterally

 4.0                                                      DATA PROCESSING


4.1 Leveling Reduction:

The method of Rise and Fall was adopted for the reduction and the height of the T.B.M used was 10.0m in the method of Rise and Fall  ,  B.S – I.S  or I.S – F.S= Rise  if the value  obtained from the subtraction is positive else fall if the value obtained during subtraction is negative  as shown mathematically below

B.S – IS = Rise (+ve)                                                                               Eq4.1

B.S – IS = Fall (-ve)                                                                                 Eq4.2

Where                          I.S= Intermediate sight

B.S=Back sight

F.S=Fore sight

The last provisional reduced  level obtained during  reduction  was 9.628 which when subtracted from the initial provision reduced level (10.0m) the misclosure  obtained was  -0.372,   this correction is divided by total number of instrument setup and the value obtained is added to each provision of reduce level at the first setup while for the second setup it is multiplied by 2 before adding to each provisional R/L for the third setup it is multiplied by 3, the same process is repeated until it gets to the last setup.

4.2 Arithmetic Checks:     

After reduction certain formulas are being used to check if the reduction carried out is accurate. This formulas include (∑Back sight-∑Fore sight) =(∑Rise- ∑Fall)= (last provisional R/L- First provisional R/L). If this condition was satisfied it implies that the reduction was accurate, the process used for this arithmetic checks are shown below.

∑BS=51.567, ∑FS=51.610, ∑RISE=9.781, ∑fall=9.824 , Last provisional R/L=9.628 , First provisional R/L =10.000

Hence      Back sight-Force sight = 51.567-51.610 = -0.372

Rise-Fall = 9.781-9.824 = -0.372

Last provisional R/L- First provisional R/L=9.957-10.000=-0.043

Since         B.S-F.S=RISE-FALL= Last provisional R/L- First provisional R/L.  It implies that the reduction was properly carried out.

Station  chainage Final R/L
1 0+000 10.000
2 0+020 10.074
3 0+040 10.164
4 0+060 10.299
5 0+080 10.367
6 0+100 10.394
7 0+120 10.423
8 0+140 10.449
9 0+160 10.399
10 0+180 10.333
11 0+200 10.256
12 0+220 10.108
13 0+240 9.948
14 0+260 9.845
15 0+280 9.662
16 0+300 9.654
17 0+320 9.694
18 0+340 9.693
19 0+360 9.776
20 0+380 9.885
21 0+400 9.923
22 0+420 9.975
23 0+440 9.975
24 0+460 10.118
25 0+480 10.080
26 0+500 10.064
27 0+520 10.222
28 0+540 9.906
29 0+560 9.780
30 0+580 9.745 60 1+180 11.071
 31 0+600 9.618 61 1+200 11.118
32 0+620 9.570 62 1+220 11.141
33 0+640 9.601 63 1+240 11.239
34 0+660 9.569 64 1+260 11.257
35 0+680 9.615 65 1+280 11.354
36 0+700 9.700 66 1+300 11.455
37 0+720 9.758 67 1+320 11.459
38 0+740 9.858 68 1+340 11.476
39 0+760 10.034 69 1+360 11.509
40 0+780 10.125 70 1+380 11.462
41 0+800 9.895 71 1+400 11.413
42 0+820 10.333 72 1+420 11.455
43 0+840 10.374 73 1+440 11.397
44 0+860 10.463 74 1+460 11.443
45 0+880 10.562 75 1+480 11.522
46 0+900 10.609 76 1+500 11.557
47 0+920 10.669 77 1+520 11.602
48 0+940 10.792 78 1+540 11.682
49 0+960 10.880 79 1+560 11.596
50 0+980 10.935 80 1+580 11.578
51 1+000 10.996 81 1+600 11.601
52 1+020 10.945
53 1+040 10.884
54 1+060 10.841
55 1+080 10.737
56 1+100 10.752
57 1+120 10.866
58 1+140 10.907
 59 1+160 10.940

5.0                                                       DATA PRESENTATION


Graph sheets were used to carry out all profile drawings of both longitudinal and cross section variation of the route. The graph sheet used was designed in such a way that a portion of it contain title block where project title, matric number, date, group number and location of route are drafted. The graphs also contain a portion where chainage distance; existing ground level, proposed formation level, difference and remark were drafted. Blue ink was used for plotting existing ground level while Red ink was used for plotting proposed formation level using a scale of 2cm-20mon horizontal axis and 2cm-1m on vertical axis. The formula used for estimating the proposed formation level for each graph sheet is as shown below

Where                                          F/L= Formation level

                                 Dist= Distance


Then formation level at the point where each graph terminates is estimated using,

F/LX = (Distx – Dist0) × Slope + F/L0                                                                                                      Eq5.2

Where                          F/LX = Formation level at the end of graph

Distx = Distance at the end of the graph

F/L0 =Formation level at the beginning of graph

Dist0 = Distance at the beginning of graph

The same formula was applied to all the graph sheets from 1-4 except sheet 5 which already has a known F/L at the end of the grap





Comparing the final misclosure obtained with the standard of acceptable error using the formula below

Error = 24mm√k

Where k is the total to and fro distance which leveling was carried out in kilometers


Error = 24×√3.2= 42.93=0.0429

  • Based on the experience I have achieved from this year’s survey camp it has improved my confidence level in site construction work hence it can be said that to carry out further site construction work has been improved tremendously
  • Finally Surveying camp is of great importance to civil engineering students hence n cx



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